The value of the cocaine trafficked by Colombian traffickers to Mexico (including minor quantities from from Peru and Bo- livia) had a farm-gate value of US$0.6 billion in the Andean countries in 2008. The value at the sea border in Colombia was close to US$1 billion, suggesting that local traffickers (mostly Colombians) made gross profits of some US$0.4 bil- lion. Trafficked from Colombia to Mexico, the value – taking seizures into account – increased to US$3.3 billion. The gross profits amounted to around US$2.4 billion. Assuming that 80% of this traffic is organized by Colombian drug trafficking groups, their gross profits amounted to US$1.9 billion in 2008. The share of Colombian drug traffickers in the USA

has fallen strongly over the last 15 years to just 2.2% (in terms of persons arrested). But the cocaine market in the USA (US$38 billion in 2008) is huge, and so are cocaine related gross profits (US$29.5 billion). Applying the proportion of 2.2% to the total amount of gross trafficking profits made in the USA the Colombian drug traffickers may have generated a further US$0.6 billion All of this suggests that Colombian drug traffickers made some US$3 billion in gross profits ship- ping cocaine from the Andean region to North America while farmers make some US$0.6 billion. High profits are also made in shipping cocaine to Europe. The value of the cocaine destined for Europe amounted to

US$34 billion in 2008 of which the internationally operating cocaine traffickers, shipping the cocaine from the Andean re- gion to Europe, reaped some US$8.3 billion in gross profits in 2008. Colombian trafficking organizations play a significant role in many of these trafficking activities. Assuming (based on the analysis of Spanish arrest statistics) that at least 30%

of all cocaine shipments to Europe are directly organized by Colombian groups, Colombian trafficking groups would have generated some US$2.5 billion. In addition, there are reports that Colombian traffickers organized cocaine shipments to West Africa (accounting for 30% of total shipments to Europe in 2007 and 17% in 2008) for subsequent deliveries to Eu- rope for which the African trafficking groups received about one third in kind. This suggests that Colombian groups may have earned another US$0.5 billion in gross profits out of these activities. Thus, Colombian groups may have earned, in total, some US$3 billion out of trafficking cocaine to Europe in 2008.

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